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This Report was taken from the The Social Science Research Network (SSRN) in September, titled, “COVID-19 Vaccine Boosters for Young Adults: A Risk-Benefit Assessment and Five Ethical Arguments against Mandates at Universities.“ 

The Scientists / Doctors.


  Kevin Bardosh, PhD1,2*
; Allison Krug, MPH3*
; Euzebiusz Jamrozik, MD, MA, PhD4;4
Trudo Lemmens, CandJur, LicJur, LLM, DCL5 ; Salmaan Keshavjee, MD, PhD, ScM 6 ; Vinay5
Prasad, MD, MPH7; Martin Makary, MD, MPH8  

Stefan Baral, MD, MPH, FRCPC 9
; Tracy Beth Høeg, MD PHD


1 School of Public Health, University of Washington, USA9
2 Division of Infection Medicine, Edinburgh Medical School, University of Edinburgh, UK10
3 Artemis Biomedical Communications LLC, Virginia Beach, VA, USA11
4 Wellcome Centre for Ethics and Humanities, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK12
5 Faculty of Law and Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Canada13
6 Department of Global Health and Social Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA14
7 University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA15
8 Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA16
9 Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA17
10 Florida Dept of Health, Tallahassee, FL, USA18
11Sierra Nevada Memorial Hospital, Grass Valley, CA, USA19
20

This preprint research paper has not been peer reviewed. Electronic copy available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=4206070
Preprint not pee


A team of nine experts from Harvard, Johns Hopkins, and other top universities has published paradigm-shifting research about the efficacy and safety of the COVID-19 vaccines and why mandating vaccines for college students is unethical. 

This 50-page study, which was published on The Social Science Research Network at the end of August, analyzed CDC and industry-sponsored data on vaccine adverse events, and concluded that mandates for COVID-19 boosters for young people may cause 18 to 98 actual serious adverse events for each COVID-19 infection-related hospitalization theoretically prevented.

 The paper is co-authored by Dr. Stefan Baral, an epidemiology professor at Johns Hopkins University; surgeon Martin Adel Makary, M.D., a professor at Johns Hopkins known for his books exposing medical malfeasance, including “Unaccountable: What Hospitals Won’t Tell You and How Transparency Can Revolutionize Heath Care”; and Dr. Vinay Prasad, a hematologist-oncologist, who is a professor in the UCSF Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, as well as the author of over 350 academic and peer-reviewed articles.

 But among this team of high-profile international experts who authored this paper, perhaps the most notable is Salmaan Keshavjee, M.D., Ph.D., current Director of the Harvard Medical School Center for Global Health Delivery, and professor of Global Health and Social Medicine at Harvard Medical School. Keshavjee has also worked extensively with Partners In Health, a Boston-based non-profit co-founded by the late Dr. Paul Farmer, on treating drug-resistant tuberculosis, according to his online biography



Five ethical arguments against university booster mandates396
397
 Fiveve ethical arguments against university booster mandates informed by our
risk-benefit assessment and ethical analysis of mandatory policies to date. These arguments
relate to (1) the importance of transparency in policy (which has been lacking), (2) the potential
for net individual harm, (3) the lack of a proportionate public health benefit, (4) the lack of
reciprocity in terms of compensation for vaccine-related harms, and (5) the wider social harms
of vaccine mandates 


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